According to Myth, the twin sons of Lord Ram ruled Jaipur. There is no literature proof for the same. The first literature evidence of presence of Jaipur is indicated since 18th century only. Mughals were jealous of the heritage of wealth of Amber (major place near Jaipur).Mughal king Humayun brought 50,000 soldiers to fight against the King of Amber. Seeing that there is no chance of victory, King of Amber started paying homage to Mughal and kept the land to themselves. Later, Akbar married a princess of the region and linked Amber and surrounding area with the Mughals. The Mughals were more focused on Amber than Jaipur. Many decades later, Jai Singh II came to the throne. Jai Singh had interest in science and architecture. He built the famous Jantar Mantar of Jaipur.
Even when Jai Singh came to throne, Jaipur was just a small region near the major city of Amber. Even today, you can find the majestic fort of Amber where the kings once lived and ruled. Maharaj Jai Singh officially founded Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan, in 1727. During the initial period of his reign, Amber was his capital. Amber lies 11 km away from Jaipur. With increased population and scarcity of water in Amber, he shifted his capital to Jaipur. Jaipur is one of the few ancient planned cities of India. Jai Singh researched on city planning and architecture before laying out a plan for Jaipur.
After witnessing many battles, he wanted Jaipur to be a safe place. He focused on scientific and astronomical factors in building the city. It took four years to build the city with roads, palaces and square. The city was built with vastu (religious style of architecture). Ancient Jaipur was divided into nine blocks. Two blocks were allocated for official buildings and the remaining were for public. Huge walls were built around Jaipur with seven strong gates.
In 1722, after the death of Jai Singh, the power of Jaipur started to decline. Unworthy princes and kings were not able to safeguard the place and chucks of territories were lost to other kings. In 1818, Jaipur signed a treaty with the British under which the king will have the control of the region but under the supervision of British. When Prince of Wales visited India in 19th century, Jaipur was totally under the control of British. The Jaipur government ordered major buildings to be painted in pink to welcome the king. Even today, those structures remain in pink and thus, Jaipur is called as Pink City. In 19th century, it was one of the most happening city. The roads were lit with light fueled by gas, there were many industries, hospitals, schools, colleges and others.
After Independence, the city was merged with Rajasthan and in 1956, Jaipur was chosen as the capital of Rajasthan.