Jammu and Kashmir, a union territory of India (until Oct thirty-one, 2019, a state), is situated within the northern a part of the Indian landmass within the locality of westmost Himalayan mountain ranges and Karakorum Range. it's a territory that may be a part of the larger portion of Kashmir, that has been the matter of dispute between India, China and Pakistan since the time of partition of the landmass in 1947.
Legislation passed in August 2019 set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off an area of it, called the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory.
The modification went into result on Oct thirty-one of that year, although many lawsuits affecting its status remained unfinished. the information that follows describes the previous state of Jammu and Kashmir, as well as the Ladakh region.
Jammu and Kashmir, formerly one in all the largest princely states of India, is bounded to the northeast by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang (China), to the east by the Tibet Autonomous Region (China) and also the Chinese-administered parts of Kashmir, to the south by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab, to the southwest by Pakistan, and the northwest by the Pakistani-administered portion of Kashmir. The administrative capitals are Srinagar in summertime and Jammu in wintertime.
The slim zone of plains landscape within the Jammu region is characterised by interlocking sandy alluvial fans that are deposited by streams discharging from the foothills and by a much-dissected pediment covered by loams and loess that is wind-deposited sand of Pleistocene epoch age (about 11,700 to 2,600,000 years aged).
Precipitation is low, amounting to concerning fifteen to twenty inches (380 to five hundred mm) p.a., and it happens in the main within the variety of significant however infrequent rain showers throughout the summer monsoon (June to September). The rural area has been nearly entirely bald of trees, and thorn scrub and coarse grass area unit the dominant sorts of vegetation.
The cultural, specific and ethnic combination of Jammu and Kashmir varies across the state by region. About two-thirds of the population adheres to Islam, a greater dimension than in the other Indian state; Hindus aggregate most of the remaining third. There are little minorities of Sikhs and Buddhists. Urdu is the state’s official language.
The foothills of the Himalayas, rising from about 2,000 to 7,000 feet which is 600 to 2,100 metres, with the exterior and interior zones. The external zone consists of sandstones, silts, clays, and conglomerates, influenced by mountain range folding movements and worn to make long ridges and valleys referred to as duns.
The inner zone consists of more-massive stone, as well as red sandstones of Miocene age (roughly 5.3 to 23 million years old), that has been bifold, fractured, and worn to make steep spurs and tableland remnants.
Stream valleys are deeply incised and terraced, and faulting has produced a variety of alluvium-filled basins, like those encompassing Udhampur and Punch. Precipitation will increase with elevation, and also the lower scrubland provides a way to pine forests higher up.
The overwhelming majority of the state’s territory is mountainous, and also the geographics is split into seven zones that are closely related to the structural elements of the western Himalayas. From southwest to northeast those zones contains the plains, the foothills, the Pir Panjal vary, the depression of Kashmir, the great Himalayas zone, the higher Indus River valley, and also the Karakorum Range.
The climate varies from alpine within the northeast to semitropical within the southwest. within the alpine space, average annual precipitation is concerning three inches (75 mm), however within the semitropical zone (around Jammu) rain amounts to concerning forty-five inches (1,150 mm) p.a..
The complete region is at risk of violent seismic activity, and lightweight to moderate tremors are common. a robust shake centred in bordering Pakistani administered Jammu and Kashmir hit lots of in Jammu and Kashmir state in 2005.
The Pir Panjal range constitutes the primary (southernmost) mountain rampart related to the Himalayas within the state and is that the westmost of the Lesser Himalayas. it's a median crest line of 12,500 feet (3,800 metres), with individual peaks rising to some 15,000 feet (4,600 metres).
Consisting of an ancient rock core of granites, gneisses, quartz rocks, and slates, it's been subject to goodly uplift and fracturing and was heavily frozen throughout the Pleistocene. The range receives significant precipitation within the sorts of winter snowfall and summer rain and has in-depth areas of pasture higher than the tree line. it's drained mainly by the Jhelum, Punch, and Chenab rivers.
Geologically complex and topographically extended, the good Himalayas contain ranges with many peaks reaching elevations of 20,000 feet (6,100 metres) or higher, between that lies intensely protected remote valleys.
The region was heavily frozen throughout the Pleistocene, and remnant glaciers and snowfields are still present. The zone receives some rain from the southwest monsoon within the summer months—and the lower slopes are forested—but the mountains represent an environmental condition divide, representing a transition from the monsoon climate of the Indian landmass to the dry continental climate of Central Asia.
The upper river valley could be a well-defined feature that follows the geologic strike that is a structural trend westward from the Tibetan border to the purpose within the Pakistani division of Kashmir where the river forms the great mountainous mass of Nanga Parbat to run southward in deep ravines that cut over the strike.
In the upper limits, the river is edged by the sand landscapes; each stream creates an alluvial fan out into the most valley. The city of Leh stands on such a fan, 11,500 feet above water level, with a climate marked by an about total lack of rainfall, by intense insolation (exposure to sunlight), and by numerous regular and annual ranges of temperature.
Life depends on melted water from the encircling cliffs, and vegetation is alpine (i.e., consists of species above the tree line), growing on slight soils.
The population of Jammu and Kashmir continues to extend fairly quickly from the late 20th into the first 21st century, growing by nearly twenty-five per cent between 2001 and 2011. The state has remained mostly rural, nearly three-fourths of its people living in cities and villages, however, urbanization has enhanced.
Nearly two-fifths of the urban population resides within the Srinagar region. The sex ratio is comparatively poor, concerning 890 females per 1,000 males at the 2011 census, less than it had been within the 2001 census (900 females per 1,000 males).
Among the wild mammals found within the state are the Siberian ibex, the Ladakh urial, it is a kind of untamed sheep with a reddish coat, the rare hangul which is found in Dachigam park, the imperil markhor which is a large goat residing mainly in protected areas of the Pir Panjal Range, black and brown bears. There are many varieties of game birds, including huge quantities of migratory ducks.